To define in a simple way, verifying functionality of application against requirement specifications / Usecase / SRS / FRS will be referred as Software testing. The above process which will implemented through manual effort by developing, maintaining certain testing process documents like Test plan, Test cases, Test Strategies, Test Scenarios would be considered as Manual testing.
In normal terms “The process of validation a product manually is referred to as Manual Testing”. In manual testing we more often verify the product using a set of requirements, validating them with the product and then raise an issue if the product is deviating from the requirement.
It requires a tester to play the role of an end user and use most of all features of the application to ensure correct behavior.
A manual tester should have an attitude to break the application, should have good observation to help the developers to find the root cause of an issue, should think and suggest different way to solve an issue. If any change request come across then the tester should think whether the changes break any existing functionality. Manual testing needs a good understanding about the system under test.
Manual Testing does not require knowledge of any testing tool. One of the Software Testing Fundamental is “100% Automation is not possible“. This makes Manual Testing imperative.
The goal of Manual Testing is to ensure that the application is error free and it is working in conformance to the specified functional requirements. Test Suites or cases, are designed during the testing phase and should have 100% test coverage.
It also makes sure that reported defects are fixed by developers and re-testing has been performed by testers on the fixed defects. Basically, this testing checks the quality of the system and delivers bug-free product to the customer.
Final word, Manual testing is an activity where the tester needs to be very patient, creative & open minded. They need to think and act with an End User perspective.
Next Topic: What is Automation Testing?