What knowledge does a tester need to test a software?

There are several ways you can test a software or any product. Required knowledge is depends on what testing you do.
1. Is the product is easy to use? This kind of testing tests how a customer will use the product.
2. Will the product work faster if thousands of customers accessing it? This is performance/load/stress testing
3. Is the product is working as expected? Normal functional testing. Either by clicking/checking/automation etc.

          All the above needs different kind of understanding to test the software. If testers don’t know any programming or underlying code, it is not possible to do load testing but they can do acceptance testing.

In order to meet above requirements, tester need to know few things like-
  1. Functional knowledge of the product.
  2. Design and business rules
  3. Need to know manual and automated testing tools/frameworks to test product.
  4. Write automated test cases to automate most of the testing.
  5. Need to know boundaries of the product he/she testing where other products are integrated. Need to know dependencies.
  6. Pre-optimization is mostly avoided at inception phases. Hence later the tester might have to perform load testing to verify performance.
  7. Should be vigilant to check all the edge cases which developers can/may miss.
  8. Should be able to reproduce issues and document steps.
  9. You need logical and analytical skills
        If you are doing software testing manually than you don’t need the knowledge of any programming language…  The only thing you need is the domain knowledge. The knowledge of domain for a taster is most important. We often say “technology changes but domain knowledge will last forever”.
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